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Corso GNU/Linux base '09Sun, 15 Feb 09
Anche quest'anno con l'associazione NetStudent abbiamo proposto il corso GNU/Linux base presso il Politecnico di Torino. Riporto le slide utilizzate nella seconda e terza lezione, versione rivista ed ampliata sui comandi di base, filesystem, permessi. I sorgenti sono qui disponibili.
Cisco routers and multicastFri, 23 Jan 09
Here I report some useful commands to manage and debug multicast traffic and routing using Cisco IOS network devices. In the configuration used for samples, I have 2 routers with two interfaces each one: the local one on Fa0/0 and the WAN over witch one there's a tunnel Tu0. But those commands are valid every time you need to manage multicast.

mrinfo
A command that shows the neighbours multicast routers. In the end you find kind of transport to reach the neighbour.
cisco# mrinfo
192.168.1.254 [version  12.4] [flags: PMA]:
  10.1.1.2 -> 10.1.1.1 [1/0/tunnel/pim]
  192.168.1.254 -> 0.0.0.0 [1/0/pim/querier/leaf]

mstat -source IP- -destination IP- -multicast group-
Show a trace route of multicast packet with statistics. You can define source and destination address, as well as the multicast group to use:
cisco#mstat 192.168.1.254 192.168.0.254 224.1.2.3
Type escape sequence to abort.
Mtrace from 192.168.1.254 to 192.168.0.254 via group 224.1.2.3  
From source (?) to destination (?)
Waiting to accumulate statistics......
Results after 10 seconds:

  Source        Response Dest   Packet Statistics For     Only For Traffic
192.168.1.254   192.168.1.254   All Multicast Traffic     From 192.168.1.254 
     |       __/  rtt 52   ms   Lost/Sent = Pct  Rate     To 224.1.2.3  
     v      /     hop -42  s    ---------------------     --------------------
192.168.1.254   
10.1.1.2        ? Prune sent upstream
     |     ^      ttl   0   
     v     |      hop 0    ms    -1/0 = --%      0 pps    0/0 = --%  0 pps
10.1.1.1        ? Reached RP/Core
     |      \__   ttl   1   
     v         \  hop 42   s         0         0 pps           0    0 pps
192.168.0.254   192.168.1.254   
  Receiver      Query Source

show ip mroute
Shows the multicast routing table. The table is usually dynamic, so pay attention and look at timeout values.
cisco#show ip mroute
IP Multicast Routing Table
Flags: D - Dense, S - Sparse, B - Bidir Group, s - SSM Group, C - Connected,
       L - Local, P - Pruned, R - RP-bit set, F - Register flag,
       T - SPT-bit set, J - Join SPT, M - MSDP created entry,
       X - Proxy Join Timer Running, A - Candidate for MSDP Advertisement,
       U - URD, I - Received Source Specific Host Report,
       Z - Multicast Tunnel, z - MDT-data group sender,
       Y - Joined MDT-data group, y - Sending to MDT-data group
Outgoing interface flags: H - Hardware switched, A - Assert winner
 Timers: Uptime/Expires
 Interface state: Interface, Next-Hop or VCD, State/Mode

(*, 224.1.2.3), 2d00h/stopped, RP 10.1.1.1, flags: SJCF
  Incoming interface: Tunnel0, RPF nbr 10.1.1.1
  Outgoing interface list:
    FastEthernet0/0, Forward/Sparse-Dense, 2d00h/00:02:53

(192.168.1.254, 224.1.2.3), 00:01:15/00:02:07, flags: PFT
  Incoming interface: FastEthernet0/0, RPF nbr 0.0.0.0
  Outgoing interface list: Null

(*, 224.0.1.40), 2d00h/00:02:00, RP 10.1.1.1, flags: SJCL
  Incoming interface: Tunnel0, RPF nbr 10.1.1.1
  Outgoing interface list:
    FastEthernet0/0, Forward/Sparse-Dense, 2d00h/00:02:00

show ip mroute active
Like before, but shows only currently transmitting multicast traffic passing through a multicast route in the router. At default, the source shown must generate at least 4kbps.
cisco#show ip mroute active 
Active IP Multicast Sources - sending >= 4 kbps
 a negative (-) Rate counts pps being fast-dropped

Group: 224.1.2.3, (?)
   Source: 192.168.1.1  (?)
     Rate: 19 pps/18 kbps(1sec), 9 kbps(last 20 secs), 14 kbps(life avg)

show ip igmp groups
To show IGMP groups present on the router and expiry times
cisco#show ip igmp groups
IGMP Connected Group Membership
Group Address    Interface                Uptime    Expires   Last Reporter   Group Accounted
224.1.2.3        FastEthernet0/0          2d00h     00:02:12  192.168.1.1     
224.0.1.40       FastEthernet0/0          2d00h     00:02:19  192.168.1.254   

The next three commands are useful to debug Protocol Indipendent Multicast (PIM), usually used as a multicast routing protocol (another one more generic is NHRP).

show ip pim interface
To show interfaces involved with PIM packet protocol, with source address and destination route
cisco#show ip pim interface 
Address          Interface                Ver/   Nbr    Query  DR     DR
                                          Mode   Count  Intvl  Prior
10.1.1.2         Tunnel0                  v2/SD  1      30     1      0.0.0.0
192.168.1.254    FastEthernet0/0          v2/SD  0      30     1      192.168.1.254 

show ip pim neighbor
To show the ip address of neighbor PIM-enabled routers with interface connected to, and expiry times
cisco#show ip pim neighbor
PIM Neighbor Table
Mode: B - Bidir Capable, DR - Designated Router, N - Default DR Priority,
      S - State Refresh Capable
Neighbor          Interface                Uptime/Expires    Ver   DR
Address                                                            Prio/Mode
10.1.1.1          Tunnel0                  1d23h/00:01:34    v2    1 / B S

show ip pim rp mapping
Shows mapping between PIM group and Rendez-vous Point, eg. the IP interface of the router where you reach the multicast group.
cisco#show ip pim rp mapping
PIM Group-to-RP Mappings

Group(s): 224.0.0.0/4, Static
    RP: 10.1.1.1 (?)
Wikipedia offlineDec 2007
Ho rilasciato il testo della mia tesi di laurea specialistica sotto licenza CC-BY-NC.
Il titolo completo e` Sviluppo di un ambiente software per la consultazione offline di Wikipedia.

E` disponibile il pdf completo e le slides annesse

La tesi verte sui metodi per ottenere una versione offline multipiattaforma di Wikipedia utilizzando software opensource; in particolare e` stato definito un meccanismo di conversione e un'interfaccia per la consultazione offline, incluso un motore di ricerca ECMAscript. Il sistema prodotto puo` essere memorizzato su diversi supporti (dvdrom, pendrive, etc) e accessibili da molti sistemi operativi senza richiedere dipendenze particolari.
Il processo e` applicabile a qualsiasi versione di Wikipedia e con poche modifiche a qualsiasi installazione di MediaWiki. Per motivi di responsabilita` in Italia l'utilizzo del software deve essere personale.
Il nome in codice del progetto e` "WaNDA", acronimo di WaNDA ancora Non Definitivamente Aggiornata. Gli applicativi prodotti sono situati su Sourceforge con il nome di WaNDA-tools: e` qui disponibile l'ultima versione del pacchetto.
GNU/LinuxNov 2007
Slides per il corso base GNU/Linux Netstudent.
Terza lezione: shell, comandi base, struttura del filesystem, permessi.
corsobaselinux_3_nov07.pdf (source)
FLOSSSep 2007
Slides on Free/Libre/Open-Source Software, in italian:
FLOSSeCO.pdf (source)

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